Factors related significantly to nausea and vomiting of pregnancy...

44.   FACTORS RELATED SIGNIFICANTLY TO NAUSEA AND VOMITING OF PREGNANCY (NVP) OR HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDARUM (HG) WITH A BALANCE OF AT LEAST FOUR REFERENCES GIVING A POSITIVE OR ADVERSE RELATION TO NVP OR HG

 

Index

No.

 

Total Number

of References

1.

Incidence of NVP, 73.4% of births.

26

2a.

Incidence of nausea only: 32.0% of women with NVP.

10

2b.

Episodic nature of nausea in NVP.

5

2c.

Regular daily pattern of NVP.

4

2d.

NVP last for a mean of approximately 6.5 weeks.

5

2e.

Nausea the most distressing symptom of NVP.

7

2f.

HG develops from NVP.

6

2g.

Nausea of NVP unusual compared to nausea with other conditions

4

3.

Incidence of vomiting 47.1% of births.

13

4.

Mean day of onset of NVP 39 from LMP.

5

13.2% of women start NVP before day 28 from LMP.

5

90% of women start NVP before day 56 from LMP.

5

5.

Mean weeks of cessation of NVP.  Weeks 12-14 from LMP

4

Later weeks variation considerable, range 91% ceased by end of

week 16 or 90% ceased by week 22.

6

6.

25.6% of women who delivered a singleton normal infant had no

NVP

16

7a.

Percentage of women with NVP in the morning only: 13.6%.

6

7b.

NVP most commonly occurs before and after midday.

13

7c.

Correct name pregnancy nausea and vomiting not morning sickness.

8

8a.

NVP can vary from pregnancy to pregnancy in the same woman.

5

8b.

NVP can recur similarly from one pregnancy to the next in the

same woman.

6

8c.

50-66% chance that NVP will be similar from one pregnancy to

the next in the same woman.

4

8d.

Recurrence rate of HG for succeeding pregnancies between 70-80%

7

9a.

Incidence of HG, range 0.14%-1.3% of pregnant women.

18

9b.

HG peak time of admission to hospital 9-11 weeks from LMP.

12

9c.

Length of stay in hospital 3 to 4 days.

11

9d.

Re-admission to hospital 25%.

13

9e.

Prompt recovery from NVP or HGafter termination or delivery.

6

9f.

Importance of HG in early pregnancies, incidence, cost.

9

10.

Animals do not suffer vomiting due to pregnancy.

5

11.

Marital status not related to NVP.

6

13.

No difference in incidence of NVP with ethnic origin.

6

14.

Material genotype influences NVP and HG

4

16.

NVP more common in non-smokers.

 14

21.

Nausea when previously taking an oral contraceptive positively

related to NVP.

 5

22.

No increase in NVP in diabetic women compared to non-diabetic women.

5

24.

HG more common with Hydatidiform Moles than in normal

pregnancy.

8

26.

Lower occurrence or lower severity  of NVP in pregnancies resulting in a

spontaneous miscarriage.

18

27.

Hyperemesis associated with reduced maternal weight gain.

5

28.

NVP not increased in women who later develop pre-eclamptic

toxaemia.

8

30.

Women with HG or NVP not likely to experience delivery before

37 weeks.

16

31.

Sex of baby. HG associated with more girls.

7

32a.

NVP not related to birth weight of baby.

 10

32b.

HG associated with average birth weight babies.

 7

32c.

Severe HG associated with low birth weight babies.

 5

33.

Increased incidence of HG or NVP in twin pregnancy.

8

35.

No specific reported foetal abnormality associated with HG or NVP

15

35g.

In all pregnancies there is a base line risk of 1-3% of the baby

having a major congenital abnormality at birth.

8

36.

No increased risk of Stillbirth or Perinatal Mortality associated with NVP or HG of the current pregnancy.

7

37.

Development of pronounced food cravings associated with

NVP.

5

37a.

Food aversions associated with increased NVP.

 5

38.

Caffeine consumption makes NVP worse.

 9

39.

Factors which improve NVP.

 

Eating as soon as nausea starts and when hungry.

 11

Nausea improved after eating 55% of women with NVP

8

Nausea improved eating frequent small meals

6

Nausea improved after eating small frequent meals 61% of women with NVP

8

 Getting more rest.

8

Lying down positional changes avoided.

 5

Getting fresh air.

 5

Minimise odours.

 4

Nothing helps.

4

40.

Factors which make NVP worse. Increased olfactory sensation

7

Fatty or cooking smells.

10

Drinking or smell of tea or coffee.

6

Cigarette smoke.

4

Perfume.

4

Other factors

 

Positional changes.

5

Being hungry.

4

Which prevent women from resting

7

41.

Time lost from work due to NVP significant.

10

42.

Adverse effects of severe NVP on quality of pregnant women’s lives.

17

42a.

NVP needs treatment.

13

Early treatment of NVP advisable.

9

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