Research articles and references

Research into nausea and vomiting in pregnancy is on the rise and in recent years this notoriously under researched condition has gained more attention and interest around the world.

It would be beyond the scope of this website to give a complete library list of references but we have tried to give you a good starting point for the various aspects of pregnancy sickness and hyperemesis gravidarum references. Open source references are linked to their sources but the rest must be accessed via your professional library memberships .

Pregnancy Sickness and Hyperemesis Gravidarum; Descriptions, Incidence and General Discussion

Barnie-Adshead T. and Gadsby R. What Causes Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy

Davis M (2004) Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy, An Evidenced Based Review J Perinat Neonat Nurs 18(4): 312-328

Fejzo M, Macgibbon K, Romero R, Goodwin T, Mullin P (2011), Recurrence risk of hyperemesis gravidarum, J Midwifery Womens Health 56(2): 132-6

Gadsby R, Barnie-Adshead A, Jagger C (1993) A prospective study of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy Br J Gen Pract 43: 245-248

Gadsby R and Barnie-Adshead A, Oct 2011 Literature review of Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy

Goodwin T (2008) Hyperemesis Gravidarum Obstet Gynecol Clin N Am 35: 401-417

Lee N. (2011) Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 40(2): 309-vii

MUNCH S. A Qualitative Analysis of Physician Humanism: Women's Experiences with Hyperemesis Gravidarum. Journal of Perinatology, 2000; 20 - 540-547

Sykes C, Swallow B, Gadsby R, Barnie-Adshead A, Dean C, Moran E, Kitching H (2013) Seeking medical help for Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy (NVP) and Hyperemesis Gravidarum (HG) in primary care. Midirs 9:13-15. 


Management of Symptoms and Risks Associated with Lack of Treatment


Al-Ozairi E, Waugh J, and Taylor R (2009) Termination is not the treatment of choice for severe hyperemesis gravidarum: Successful management using prednisolone Obstetric Medicine2: 34–37.

Arsenault M-Y and Lane C A, (2002) The management of Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Canada (2002) 24; 817 - 823 

Bolin M, Akerud H, Cnattingius S, Stephansson O, Wikstrom AK (2013) Hyperemesis Gravidarum and risks of placental dysfunction disorders: a population-based cohort study. BJOG; DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.12132: 1-7

BOTTOMLEY, C. & BOURNE, T. 2009. Management strategies for hyperemesis. Best Practice & Research in Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 23, 549-564

Clark S, Constantine M, Hankins G, (2012) Review of NVP and HG and early pharmacotherapeutic intervention Obstetrics and Gynecology International, Vol 2: Article ID 252676, 8 pages

Ebrahimi 2010 Optimal Management of Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy, International Journal of Women's Health. 2010:2 241-248

Fejzo M, MacGibbon K, Korst L, Romero R, Goodwin T. Extreme Weight Loss and Extended Duration of Symptoms among women with hyperemesis gravidarum. J Women’s Health18:1981–1987.

Gadsby, R. & Barnie-Adshead, A. 2011, Review of Severe Nausea and Vomting in Pregnancy: Should it be treated with appropriate pharmacology. TOG 2011:13; 107-111

Gárdián G, Voros E, Járdánházy T, Ungureán A, Vécsei L (1999) Wernicke's encephalopathy induced by hyperemesis gravidarum. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 99: 196-198

ISMAIL S & KENNY L. 2007 Review on hyperemesis gravidarum Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology 21 (5) 755-769.

JARVIS S & NELSON-PIERCY C. 2011 Management of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy Clinical -Review article. British Medical Journal, 2011, 342; 1407-1412

Lane C (2007) Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy: A Tailored Approach to Treatment Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 50(1); 100–111

Maltepe, C. and Koren, G. (2013). "Preemptive Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial." Obstetrics and Gynecology InternationalVolume 2013, Article ID 809787, 8 pages

Maltepe C, Koren G (2013a) Preemptive Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy: Results of a Randomised Controlled Trail Obstetrics and Gynecology International Article ID 809787, 8 pages

Motherisk (Canadian) Treatment Algorithm 2007

NICE (2008) Antenatal care: routine care for the healthy pregnant woman (NICE guideline).Clinical guideline 62. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.

Poursharif B, Korst LM, Macgibbon KW, Fejzo MS, Romero R, Goodwin TM (2007) Elective pregnancy termination in a large cohort of women with hyperemesis gravidarum. Contraception. 76(6): 451-5.  


Medication Safety Papers and Perceptions of Risk

EINARSON's 2004 study; Safety of Ondansetron for NVP

Ondansetron in pregnancy and risk of adverse fetal outcomes in the United States-- Reproductive Toxicology, 2016

Koren G, Levichek Z (2002) The teratogenicity of drugs for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: percieved verses true risk Am J Obstet Gynecol. 186:S248-S252

Koren G. and Maltepe C. 2004 Preemptive Therapy for Severe Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy and Hyperemesis Gravidarum. Journal of Obsterics and Gynecology 2004;24:500-503

Mazzotta P, Magee L, Maltepe C, Lifshitz A, Navioz Y, Koren G (1999) The perception of teratogenic risk by women with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy Reproductive Toxicology 13: 313-319

Pasternak, B., H. Svanstrom, et al. (2013). "Ondansetron in pregnancy and risk of adverse fetal outcomes." N Engl J Med 368(9): 814-23.

Biopsychosocial Impact of NVP and HG

Bolin, M., H. Akerud, et al. 2013. Hyperemesis gravidarum and risks of placental dysfunction disorders: a population-based cohort study. Bjog-an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

Christodoulou-Smith J, Gold J, Romero R, Goodwin T, MacGibbon K, Mullin P, Fejzo M, (2011) Post traumatic stress symptoms following pregnancy complicated by hyperemesis gravidarum Journal of Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, Early Online 1-5

Poursharif B. Korst L. Fejzo M. MacGibbon, K. Romero, R. & Goodwin, T. (2008). The psychosocial burden of hyperemesis gravidarum. Journal of Perinatology, 28(3): 176-181.

Saleh A, Sykes C (2014) The impact of online information on health related quality of life amongst women with nausea and vomiting in pregnancy and hyperemesis gravidarum MIDIRS Midwifery Digest, 24(2) 179-185

Swallow BL, Lindow SW, Masson EA (2004) Psychological health in early pregnancy: relationship with nausea and vomiting. J Obstet Gynecol24(1): 28-32.

Swallow B (2010), Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy. The Psychologist, 23;3: 206-209

Tan P. Vani S. Lim B, Omar S. (2010) Anxiety and depression in hyperemesis gravidarum: prevalence, risk factors and correlation with clinical severity European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 149: 153–158

Nursing and Midwifery Care for Women with NVP and HG

Dean C and Gadsby R (2013) Severe Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy. Nursing in Practice March/April: 45-6

Dean, C. 2014 A patient experience of Hyperemesis Gravidarum and how the midwife can support her care, Essentially MIDIRS, March, Vol 5, No 2.

Farrell N., 2008 Hyperemesis gravidarum: how midwives can help. The Practising Midwife 11(7): 12-14

Koren G, Boskovic R, Hard M, Maltepe C, Navioz Y, Einarson A (2002) Motherisk-PUQE (pregnancy-unique quantification of emesis and nausea) scoring system for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy AmJ Obstet Gynecol 186:S228-231

Did you know?

Evidence is mounting from biological research that GDF15, the key driver of cancer cachexia, is linked to severe NVP